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Architecture (computer)
The design of a computer system. It sets the standard for all devices that connect to it and all the software that runs on it. It is based on the type of programs that will run (business, scientific) and the number of them that run concurrently.
 
Architecture (network)
The design of a communications system, which includes the hardware, software, access methods and protocols used. It also defines the method of control; for example, whether computers can act independently or are controlled by other computers monitoring the network.
 
Architecture (software)
The design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. A self-contained, stand-alone program would have program logic, but not a software architecture.
 
Base system
With regard to NEDSS, the Base System is a web-based application and platform used to collect data on cases of public health concern and transmit those data securely to CDC.
 
CIPHER
Common Information for Public Health Electronic Reporting - a set of standards or guidelines for data representation and code values which include specifications for representing concepts as well as standard code lists for coded elements. The CDC and its partners in public health have designed and implemented information systems to support surveillance for specific diseases and adverse health conditions.
 
COTS
Commercial Off the Shelf - refers to ready-made merchandise that is available for sale.
 
Data Model
The product of the database design process which aims to identify and organize the required data logically, through a set of mathematical equations, and physically, through location within a central data warehouse.
 
Data Repository
A database of information about applications software that includes author, data elements, inputs, processes, outputs and interrelationships. A repository is used in an application development system in order to identify objects and business rules for reuse. An IDR, or integrated data repository, would be a linked or bridged set of data repositories.
 
Data Warehouse
A generic term for a system for storing, retrieving, and managing large amounts of any type of data from single or multiple sources; often includes sophisticated compression and hashing techniques for fast searches and advanced filtering. The terms relational, network, flat, and hierarchical all refer to the way it organizes information internally.
 
Firewall
Software and/or hardware that protects systems from access by unauthorized users and programs.
 
JAD
Joint Application Design - JAVA decompiler which are able to read one or more JAVA class files and converts them into JAVA source files which can be compiled again.
 
JAVA
An object oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.
 
JavaScript
A scripting language widely used on the Web. JavaScript is embedded into many HTML pages.
 
JDBC
JAVA Database Connectivity - a standard that allows JAVA programs to interact with any SQL compliant database.
 
HIPAA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act - the Administrative Simplification provisions of the HIPAA Act of 1996 are intended to reduce the costs and administrative burdens of health care by making possible the standardized, electronic transmission of many administrative and financial transactions that are currently carried out manually.
 
HL7
Health Level 7 - a series of standards for the messaging of clinical data.
 
HTML
Hyper Text Markup Language - document format used on the World Wide Web. Web pages are built with HTML tags, or codes, embedded in the text. HTML defines the page layout, fonts and graphic elements as well as the hypertext links to other documents on the Web. Each link contains the URL, or address, of a Web page residing on the same server or any server worldwide, hence "World Wide" Web.
 
HTTP
HyperText Transport Protocol - the communications protocol used to connect to servers on the World Wide Web; primarily functions to establish a connection with a Web server and transmit HTML pages to the client browser.
 
Information technology
The processing of information by computer.
 
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - a vendor-independent, open, network protocol standard. It is platform independent and supports interoperability in the same fashion as a Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP).
 
LOINC
Logical Observation Identifiers, Names and Codes - a set of code standards that identifies clinical questions, variables, and reports. LOINC comprises a database of 15,000 variables with synonyms and cross-mappings; it covers a wide range of laboratory and clinical subject areas. The formal structure has six parts: component, property measured, time aspect, system, precision, and method.
 
NETSS
National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance - a system by which each of the states and territories and two large cities in the United States transmit data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for weekly examination and publication.
 
ODBC
Open Data Base Connectivity - a standard database access method developed by the Microsoft Corporation.
 
PHCDM
Public Health Conceptual Data Model - a high level conceptual model, developed as part of the CDC NEDSS initiative, which provides the foundation for standardization of public health data collection, management, transmission, analysis, and dissemination.
 
Plug in
An auxiliary program that works with a major software package to enhance its capacity.
 
Programming Code
A language used to write instructions to the computer. It allows the programmer to express data processing in a symbolic manner without regard to machine specific details.
 
SDN
Secure Data Network - the CDC project to allow for secure data transfer between state and local health departments and the CDC across the Internet.
 
SENSOR
Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks - the underlying goal of SENSOR is the prevention of occupational disease and injury. As one of the major CDC/NIOSH surveillance programs, SENSOR promotes the more general goals for surveillance including: identifying new, unrecognized occupational diseases, injuries, and hazards; identifying sentinel diseases, injuries or hazards, the occurrence of which represents a failure of prevention; determining and tracking the magnitude and distribution of those diseases in question; disseminating information to aid the public and government in decision-making.
 
SNOMED
Systemized Nomenclature for Medicine - a nomenclature classification for indexing medical vocabulary, including signs, symptoms, diagnoses, and procedures; defines code standards in a variety of clinical areas, called coding axes. SNOMED can identify procedures and possible answers to clinical questions coded through LOINC.
 
SQL
Structured Query Language - a standard language for requesting information from a database.
 
SSL
Secure Socket Layer - a method for the encrypted transmission of data across TCP/IP.
 
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - standards that are the basis for data transmission on the internet, over LANs (local area networks), and WANs (wide area networks).
 
XML
Extensible Markup Language - a specification developed by the World Wide Web consortium. XML is designed especially for web documents, and it allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations.