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Hantavirus Antibodies IgG and IgM

Updated

8/15/2013

Other Names Hantavirus or HPS Pulmonary Syndrome
How to Order
Check the Hantavirus box on the  Virology/Immunology Request (Form 42)
Availability
All Clients
Methodology
Enzyme Immunoassay
Performed
As Requested
Time to Reporting
Within 3 working days after receipt of specimen receipt
CPT Code
86790 x 2


Specimen Collection Details

Collection
One 7 mL red top or serum separator tube (SST). Plasma or post-mortem heart blood is also acceptable. Grossly hemolyzed specimens are acceptable for testing.
Optimal Volume
Blood: 5-7 mL; Serum or Plasma 1-2 mL
Minimum Volume
Blood: 2 mL; Serum or Plasma 0.5 mL
Handling
After blood clots, keep specimen refrigerated until transport. DO NOT FREEZE. If possible remove the serum from the clot as soon as possible. Sample must be tested within 7 days of collection.  
Transport
Refrigerated at 2-8° C. 
Rejection Criteria
Specimens that are contaminated, specimens received without proper patient identifiers on specimen tube and/or request form; and specimens received with requests without submitter information will be rejected.
Comments
Two major groups of hantaviruses are recognized based on clinical presentation. The first group which includes Sin Nombre Virus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, a severe and possibly fatal form of acute respiratory distress. A second group of hantaviruses (which includes Seoul, Hantaan, Dobrava, and Puumala viruses) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a condition which is not typically seen in the United States.  
     The Hantavirus IgM and IgG ELISA tests utilize the antigens derived from Sin Nombre Virus (SNV), the virus identified as the primary cause of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) clinical illness in the US.  Serologic samples from patients with HPS have been demonstrated to be reactive with SNV antigens, but other Hantaviruses have also been found to be associated with HPS.  Antibodies from patients infected with these Hantaviruses may cross-react with our current antigens. 
     It is possible that sera from individuals with relatively low antibody titers to new Hantaviruses may be below the detectable limits of the current tests.  Therefore, if such a patient had a serum sample drawn too soon after onset of illness, a negative result would not completely rule out infection with a new Hantavirus.  In this case a second specimen collected three weeks after the acute specimen should be submitted for further testing in order to confirm a negative result.